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WHAT DO THE MOST COMMONLY USED ELECTRICAL TERMS MEAN?
AMP – A unit of electric current also known as Ampere
AC - Alternating current is where the flow of electric charge is constantly changing directions. Alternating current is mostly used today to transmit power on power lines
BATTERY - A collection of electrochemical cells, but commonly refers also to a single electrochemical cell. The key property of a battery or cell is its emf. For a battery consisting of several cells, the total emf is equal to the sum of the cells' individual emfs.
CABLE – Two or more wires running side by side and bonded, twisted, or braided together to form a single assembly. In electrical engineering cables are used to carry electric currents
CHARGING - "charging" a battery is a misnomer for "energising" it. It means putting energy into the battery by forcing a current through the battery, against the battery's emf. The term charging is misleading because the total charge in the battery is always the same; although mobile charge passes through the battery during "charging" and "discharging" what matters is the state of the chemicals in the battery and the energy that you can get from it.
CURRENT - The rate of flow of electrical energy through a conductor or wire, comparable to the amount of water flowing in a pipe. Electric current is measured in amperes or “amps”
DC – Direct current is the constant flow of electric charge in one direction. Batteries generate direct current to power handheld items. Most electronics use direct current for internal power often converting alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC) using a transformer.
EMF - A physical quantity that describes the ability of an electrical source to deliver energy. You can also think of it as the property of the source that creates current in a circuit. The emf of a battery is responsible for producing a potential difference between the battery's terminals. If the battery is not connected to anything else, that potential difference is equal to the emf.
GENERATOR - A device that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.
IP RATING – Ingress Protection Rating, a two-digit code, and an optional letter specifying the level of protection from foreign objects with the first digit referring to protection from solids and the second digit referring to protection from liquids. The optional letter can be appended to classify only the level of protection against access to hazardous parts by persons or to provide additional information related to the protection of the device.
MPPT – Maximum Power Point Tracking is an electronic DC to DC converter that optimizes the match between the solar panels, and the battery you are charging, whether that be a battery storage device or direct to a digital device. To put it simply, they convert a higher voltage DC output from solar panels down to the lower voltage needed to charge batteries.The charge controller looks at the output of the panels, and compares it to the battery voltage. It then figures out what is the best power that the panel can put out to charge the battery. It takes this and converts it to best voltage to get maximum AMPS into the battery.
OEM – Original Equipment Manufacturer
OHM - The standard unit for measuring resistance to flow of an electrical current. Every electrical conductor offers resistance to the flow of current, just as a tube through which water flows offers resistance to the current of water. One ohm is the amount of resistance that limits current flow to one ampere in a circuit with one volt of electrical pressure.
SENSOR - A small coil of fine wire in the distributor on electronic ignition systems. The sensor develops an electromagnetic field that is sensitive to the presence of metal. In monitors and controllers, they sense operations of machines and relay the information to a console.
TEMPERATURE RATING – The maximum temperature at which insulation will maintain its integrity.
VOLT - A unit of electrical pressure (or electromotive force) which causes current to flow in a circuit. One volt is the amount of pressure required to cause one ampere of current to flow against one ohm of resistance.
VOLTAGE - That force which is generated to cause current to flow in an electrical circuit and can be compared to the pressure of water in a pipe in pounds per square inch. It is also referred to as electromotive force or electrical potential. Voltage is measured in volts.
WHAT ARE IP RATINGS?
IP65 - Protected from total dust ingress. Protected from low pressure water jets from any direction
P67 - Protected from total dust ingress. Protected from immersion between 15 centimeters and 1 meter in depth
The IP Code (or International Protection Rating, sometimes also interpreted as Ingress Protection Rating) consists of the letters IP followed by two digits and an optional letter. As defined in international standard IEC 60529, it classifies the degrees of protection provided against the intrusion of solid objects (including body parts like hands and fingers), dust, accidental contact, and water in electrical enclosures. e standard aims to provide users more detailed information than vague marketing terms such as waterproof.
WHAT IS MPPT TECHNOLOGY?
MPPT stands for Maximum Power Point Tracking and is an electronic DC to DC converter that optimizes the match between the solar panels, and the battery you are charging, whether that be a battery storage device or direct to a digital device. To put it simply, they convert a higher voltage DC output from solar panels down to the lower voltage needed to charge batteries.The charge controller looks at the output of the panels, and compares it to the battery voltage. It then figures out what is the best power that the panel can put out to charge the battery. It takes this and converts it to best voltage to get maximum AMPS into the battery.